Hip

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Quadriceps Muscle Strains

This injury is commonly the result of quick sprints or quick stops while running. With a muscle strain, there is localized tenderness or a “bulge” in the tender area of the thigh. The pain is aggravated by lifting the thigh (a straight leg raise), ascending/descending stairs, or getting up from a seated position.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Heat Pack
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Soft Tissue Mobilization
  • Stretching/Flexibility Exercise
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
  • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

Additional Resources

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

This injury is often the result of forceful kicking or a traumatic impact to the tendon, which may occur with a fall. Signs and symptoms include pain and bruising just above the kneecap, an inability to walk, and severe weakness of the quadriceps (making it impossible to ascend/descend stairs). Surgical repair is necessary.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Soft Tissue Mobilization
  • Stretching/Flexibility Exercise
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities
  • Improve Wound Healing

Additional Resources

Groin Strain (Adductor Strain)

This injury usually occurs in sports where cutting, side-stepping, or pivoting are required. Often, there is forceful separation of the legs or twisting of the toe outward. Signs and symptoms include pain and tenderness in the inner thigh region.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Soft Tissue Mobilization
  • Stretching/Flexibility Exercise
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

Hip Pointer

Hip pointers are the result of a direct blow to the iliac crest in sports such as football, rugby, and soccer. Signs and symptoms include pain, bruising, and tenderness at the bony prominence at the side of the hip. Treatment usually involves rest, ice, and compression.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Soft Tissue Mobilization
  • Stretching/Flexibility Exercise
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms

Trochanteric Bursitis

A bursa is a fluid-filled sack that decreases shear forces between tissues of the body. Trochanteric bursitis (inflammation of a bursa) is caused by excessive stress on the bursa between the IT Band and the greater trochanter. Signs and symptoms include pain over the outer aspect of the hipbone, which often is exacerbated when lying on the affected side, standing on the affected leg, or excessive walking. Treatment often includes rest, ice, and compression, physical therapy including stretching and progressive strengthening, and steroid injection may be helpful.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Soft Tissue Mobilization
  • Stretching/Flexibility Exercise
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

Additional Resources

Hamstring Strains

A strain is a minor tear of a muscle. Quick acceleration while running or cutting is most often the cause of hamstrings strains. A minor pulling or a pop may be noted in the back of the thigh. Pain, swelling, and an inability to run result. Treatment includes rest, ice, compression, elevation, and physical therapy.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Heat Pack
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Plyometrics
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Soft Tissue Mobilization
  • Stretching/Flexibility Exercise
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

Additional Resources

Femoral Neck Fracture

A bad fall or blow to the hip can break (fracture) the thigh bone typically around the femoral neck region. If the broken bone does not heal properly, the joint may slowly wear down. Blood flow through the femoral head may be restricted or cut off leading to the necrosis of the joint.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Decrease Postoperative Complications
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Safety
  • Improve Wound Healing

Avascular Necrosis of the Hip

Avascular necrosis means bone death due to a lack of blood supply. A disrupted blood supply occurs when there is a fracture, dislocation, or repetitive trauma to the neck of the femur. Signs and symptoms include pain, limitation of movement and pain with walking. X-rays, MRI, or a bone scan may be helpful in diagnosing this disorder. Surgical decompression or total hip replacement may be necessary.

Possible Treatments

  • Aerobic/Endurance Exercise
  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Physical Agents
  • Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
  • Improve Function
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Decrease Postoperative Complications
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Safety

Hip Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis of the hip occurs when the cartilage coverings on ball (the head of the femur) and the socket (the acetabulum) wear out. It is worse when you bear weight on the affected limb. Range of motion is often limited especially internal rotation and hip flexion. Recent studies have demonstrated that joint mobilization and stretching can result in significant pain relief.

Possible Treatments

  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Physical Agents

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Optimize Joint Alignment
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Decrease Postoperative Complications
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Safety
  • Improve Relaxation
  • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

Hip Replacement

For some osteoarthritic hip joints and femur fractures, the only option is a total hip replacement. As the image shows, both the ball (the head and neck of the femur) and the socket (the acetabulum) are replaced. You will receive physical therapy in the hospital. Recent research suggests that patients can gain significant strength and improve balance skills with additional outpatient physical therapy.

Possible Treatments

  • Core Strengthening
  • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
  • Electrotherapeutic Modalities
  • Gait or Walking Training
  • Hip Active Range of Motion
  • Hip Joint Mobilization
  • Hip Passive Range of Motion
  • Hip Resistive Range of Motion
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Proprioception Exercises
  • Isometric Exercise
  • Physical Agents
  • Soft Tissue Mobilization

Possible Treatment Goals

  • Improve Balance
  • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
  • Improve Fitness
  • Improve Function
  • Optimize Joint Alignment
  • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
  • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
  • Improve Proprioception
  • Decrease Postoperative Complications
  • Improve Range of Motion
  • Self-care of Symptoms
  • Improve Safety
  • Improve Relaxation
  • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities
  • Improve Wound Healing
  • Quadriceps Muscle Strains

    This injury is commonly the result of quick sprints or quick stops while running. With a muscle strain, there is localized tenderness or a “bulge” in the tender area of the thigh. The pain is aggravated by lifting the thigh (a straight leg raise), ascending/descending stairs, or getting up from a seated position.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Heat Pack

    Heat is recommended to decrease chronic pain, relax muscles, and for pain relief. It should not be used with an acute or “new” injury.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Soft Tissue Mobilization

    Therapeutic massage of body tissue, performed with the hands. Soft tissue mobilization may be used for muscle relaxation, to decrease swelling, to decrease scar tissue adhesions, and for pain relief.

    Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

    Exercise designed to lengthen a muscle(s) or soft tissue. Stretching exercises are usually prescribed to improve the flexibility of muscles that have tightened due to disuse or in compensation to pain, spasm or immobilization.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
    • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

    Resources

  • Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

    This injury is often the result of forceful kicking or a traumatic impact to the tendon, which may occur with a fall. Signs and symptoms include pain and bruising just above the kneecap, an inability to walk, and severe weakness of the quadriceps (making it impossible to ascend/descend stairs). Surgical repair is necessary.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Soft Tissue Mobilization

    Therapeutic massage of body tissue, performed with the hands. Soft tissue mobilization may be used for muscle relaxation, to decrease swelling, to decrease scar tissue adhesions, and for pain relief.

    Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

    Exercise designed to lengthen a muscle(s) or soft tissue. Stretching exercises are usually prescribed to improve the flexibility of muscles that have tightened due to disuse or in compensation to pain, spasm or immobilization.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities
    • Improve Wound Healing

    Resources

  • Groin Strain (Adductor Strain)

    This injury usually occurs in sports where cutting, side-stepping, or pivoting are required. Often, there is forceful separation of the legs or twisting of the toe outward. Signs and symptoms include pain and tenderness in the inner thigh region.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Soft Tissue Mobilization

    Therapeutic massage of body tissue, performed with the hands. Soft tissue mobilization may be used for muscle relaxation, to decrease swelling, to decrease scar tissue adhesions, and for pain relief.

    Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

    Exercise designed to lengthen a muscle(s) or soft tissue. Stretching exercises are usually prescribed to improve the flexibility of muscles that have tightened due to disuse or in compensation to pain, spasm or immobilization.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

    Resources

  • Hip Pointer

    Hip pointers are the result of a direct blow to the iliac crest in sports such as football, rugby, and soccer. Signs and symptoms include pain, bruising, and tenderness at the bony prominence at the side of the hip. Treatment usually involves rest, ice, and compression.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Soft Tissue Mobilization

    Therapeutic massage of body tissue, performed with the hands. Soft tissue mobilization may be used for muscle relaxation, to decrease swelling, to decrease scar tissue adhesions, and for pain relief.

    Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

    Exercise designed to lengthen a muscle(s) or soft tissue. Stretching exercises are usually prescribed to improve the flexibility of muscles that have tightened due to disuse or in compensation to pain, spasm or immobilization.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms

    Resources

  • Trochanteric Bursitis

    A bursa is a fluid-filled sack that decreases shear forces between tissues of the body. Trochanteric bursitis (inflammation of a bursa) is caused by excessive stress on the bursa between the IT Band and the greater trochanter. Signs and symptoms include pain over the outer aspect of the hipbone, which often is exacerbated when lying on the affected side, standing on the affected leg, or excessive walking. Treatment often includes rest, ice, and compression, physical therapy including stretching and progressive strengthening, and steroid injection may be helpful.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Soft Tissue Mobilization

    Therapeutic massage of body tissue, performed with the hands. Soft tissue mobilization may be used for muscle relaxation, to decrease swelling, to decrease scar tissue adhesions, and for pain relief.

    Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

    Exercise designed to lengthen a muscle(s) or soft tissue. Stretching exercises are usually prescribed to improve the flexibility of muscles that have tightened due to disuse or in compensation to pain, spasm or immobilization.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

    Resources

  • Hamstring Strains

    A strain is a minor tear of a muscle. Quick acceleration while running or cutting is most often the cause of hamstrings strains. A minor pulling or a pop may be noted in the back of the thigh. Pain, swelling, and an inability to run result. Treatment includes rest, ice, compression, elevation, and physical therapy.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Heat Pack

    Heat is recommended to decrease chronic pain, relax muscles, and for pain relief. It should not be used with an acute or “new” injury.

    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Plyometrics
    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Soft Tissue Mobilization

    Therapeutic massage of body tissue, performed with the hands. Soft tissue mobilization may be used for muscle relaxation, to decrease swelling, to decrease scar tissue adhesions, and for pain relief.

    Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

    Exercise designed to lengthen a muscle(s) or soft tissue. Stretching exercises are usually prescribed to improve the flexibility of muscles that have tightened due to disuse or in compensation to pain, spasm or immobilization.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

    Resources

  • Femoral Neck Fracture

    A bad fall or blow to the hip can break (fracture) the thigh bone typically around the femoral neck region. If the broken bone does not heal properly, the joint may slowly wear down. Blood flow through the femoral head may be restricted or cut off leading to the necrosis of the joint.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Decrease Postoperative Complications
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Safety
    • Improve Wound Healing

    Resources

  • Avascular Necrosis of the Hip

    Avascular necrosis means bone death due to a lack of blood supply. A disrupted blood supply occurs when there is a fracture, dislocation, or repetitive trauma to the neck of the femur. Signs and symptoms include pain, limitation of movement and pain with walking. X-rays, MRI, or a bone scan may be helpful in diagnosing this disorder. Surgical decompression or total hip replacement may be necessary.

    Treatments

    Aerobic/Endurance Exercise

    Stationary cycling is usually prescribed for improving the strength and/or range of motion of the hips, knees, ankles as well as cardio-vascular endurance.

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound
    Stretching/Flexibility Exercise

    Exercise designed to lengthen a muscle(s) or soft tissue. Stretching exercises are usually prescribed to improve the flexibility of muscles that have tightened due to disuse or in compensation to pain, spasm or immobilization.

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Decrease Risk of Reoccurrence
    • Improve Function
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Decrease Postoperative Complications
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Safety

    Resources

  • Hip Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis of the hip occurs when the cartilage coverings on ball (the head of the femur) and the socket (the acetabulum) wear out. It is worse when you bear weight on the affected limb. Range of motion is often limited especially internal rotation and hip flexion. Recent studies have demonstrated that joint mobilization and stretching can result in significant pain relief.

    Treatments

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Optimize Joint Alignment
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Decrease Postoperative Complications
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Safety
    • Improve Relaxation
    • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities

    Resources

  • Hip Replacement

    For some osteoarthritic hip joints and femur fractures, the only option is a total hip replacement. As the image shows, both the ball (the head and neck of the femur) and the socket (the acetabulum) are replaced. You will receive physical therapy in the hospital. Recent research suggests that patients can gain significant strength and improve balance skills with additional outpatient physical therapy.

    Treatments

    Core Strengthening

    The trunk and its associated muscles make up the core. The extremities are the arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, ankles/feet. Strong core muscles provide a foundation for the extremities to attach to and work more efficiently. It is hypothesized that a weak core can cause excessive stress on the extremity muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Core strengthening is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, abdominals, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder blade muscles. Core strengthening is often incorporated as part of a low back or neck rehabilitation program. Because recovery or enhancement of core strength provides a stable base for the extremities, it is also commonly part of an arm, forearm, thigh, leg or ankle program.

    Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy

    Cold therapy is used to cause vasoconstriction (the blood vessels constrict or decrease their diameter) to reduce the amount of fluid that leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (swelling) in response to injury of tissue. Ice or cold is used most frequently in acute injuries, but also an effective pain reliever for even the most chronic pain. Cold therapy may be administered by using a cold pack or an ice massage as seen in the above video.

    Electrotherapeutic Modalities

    Possible Treatments

    • Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
    • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    • Iontophoresis
    Gait or Walking Training

    The analysis of walking problems by visually examining the interaction of the low back and the joints of the thighs, legs, and feet during the various stages of walking, including, initial contact, loading response, mid stance, terminal stance, pre swing, mid swing, and terminal swing. Many back, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot problems may be caused by or manifest themselves in subtle gait abnormalities.

    Hip Active Range of Motion
    Hip Joint Mobilization
    Hip Passive Range of Motion
    Hip Resistive Range of Motion
    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

    Performed in diagonal patterns that mimic functional movements. Initially this technique was used in developmentally and neurologically impaired patients. Today, PNF (or a variation of it)is commonly used for almost every aspect of neuromuscular retraining. It can be used on the professional athlete or someone in a nursing home.

    Proprioception Exercises

    Proprioception is the body’s ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Proprioception exercises are used to help retrain your sensory system after the nerves have been damaged during a musculoskeletal injury. Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know how they are moving. Balance and coordination both depend on your body’s proprioceptive skills.

    Isometric Exercise

    An isometric exercise is a muscle contraction without joint movement. Isometrics are usually prescribed for gentle nerve and muscle reeducation. They are typically used for strengthening with arthritis patients, post-surgical patients, or as an introductory muscle strengthening exercise. A usual progression is from isometrics to active and resistive exercises that involve joint movement.

    Physical Agents

    Possible Treatments

    • Cryotherapy or Cold Therapy
    • Heat Pack
    • Ultrasound
    Soft Tissue Mobilization

    Therapeutic massage of body tissue, performed with the hands. Soft tissue mobilization may be used for muscle relaxation, to decrease swelling, to decrease scar tissue adhesions, and for pain relief.

    Goals

    • Improve Balance
    • Improve ability to bear weight/stand on the leg(s)
    • Improve Fitness
    • Improve Function
    • Optimize Joint Alignment
    • Improve Muscle Strength and Power
    • Increase Oxygen to Tissues
    • Improve Proprioception
    • Decrease Postoperative Complications
    • Improve Range of Motion
    • Self-care of Symptoms
    • Improve Safety
    • Improve Relaxation
    • Improve Tolerance for Prolonged Activities
    • Improve Wound Healing

    Resources